Uses “Time” as an element to put pressure on the other side. Often as a negotiation moves closer to a “Deadline,” concessions and the magnitude of concessions increase. Participants start making riskier, unstudied decisions. Some Deadlines are caused by circumstances (e.g. the last pickup for mail is 4PM, the latest we can wait to start production is tomorrow, the airline flight leaves tonight). Some Deadlines do pose real consequences. Other Deadlines may simply be a tactic to force a decision or deprive you of adequate planning/preparation time. Always ask, “What will happen if we don’t meet the deadline?” “Is the deadline being imposed by my organization or theirs?” “Can I change the deadline if it will help us craft a better agreement?”