Both Buyers and Sellers often ask for more than they need. Their intention is to lower the expectations of the other party and gain a concession at the start of the negotiation without having to make a concession in return. Opening offers should always be justified with reasons and/or documentation. This initiates the dialogue of the negotiation that is essential to a satisfactory outcome. Understand that there are many cultural aspects to this issue. The cultural background of each participant often dictates how extreme opening offers are. Learn to adjust your negotiations accordingly.